When is Makara Sankranti in 2023?
Makara Sankranti is celebrated on that day when the Sun is first visible in Makara Rāṡi (Capricorn). If the tranist happens during night time (i.e. after sunset) then the celebration is postponed until the next day’s sunrise. Contrary to what many people think, this time is not fixed in the sidereal calendar. Its value varies on the ayanamsha.
Following the most popular ayanamsa, the “True Lahiri” Citrapakṣa, the transit happens at 14-Jan-2023, 20:57 (IST) at Ujjain, India. Since it occurs after sunset, the celebration is postponed to 15-Jan-2023.
The following table lists the various ayanāṃṡas and the Makara Saṅkrānti moment (transit time):
|Sri Surya Siddhanta (SSS)||15-Jan-2023 02:28||15 Jan|
|True Citra/Lahiri||14-Jan-2023 20:15||15 Jan|
|Traditional Lahiri||14-Jan-2023 20:38||15 Jan|
|Pushya-paksha||13-Jan-2023 17:53||14 Jan|
|Raman||13-Jan-2023 10:33||13 Jan|
|Krishnamoorthy (KP)||14-Jan-2023 18:21||15 Jan|
|Rohini-paksha||14-Jan-2023 03:20||14 Jan|
|Usha Shashi (Revati-paksha)||11-Jan-2023 03:06||11 Jan|
|Yukteshwar||13-Jan-2023 12:09||13 Jan|
|J.N.Bhasin||13-Jan-2023 18:49||14 Jan|
|True Mula/Chandra Hari||15-Jan-2023 13:48||15 Jan|
|Aldebaran/Rohini at 15°Tau||15-Jan-2023 17:53||16 Jan|
|Galactic Centre at 0°Sag||17-Jan-2023 19:13||18 Jan|
I personally like ayanamshas based on the Mūlā nakṣatra (such as “True Mula/Chandra Hari” (λ Scorpionis is assumed at 0°Sag) or “Dhruva/Galacitc center at mid-Mula (Wilhem/Usha-Shashi)” or “Galactic Equator at mid-Mula” etc.).
Drik Panchange suggests that 5 Ghatis duration (1 ghati = 24 min) after Sunrise (if Sankranti happens after Sunset on previous day) and 1 Ghati duration after Sankranti moment (if Sankranti happens in day time) are highly auspicious.
This Python code can be used to calculate the exact transit date and time (in UTC, add +5.5 for IST) for various ayanamshas. Sample output is here. Note that most of the dates lie between January 10 and January 20 with some outliers.