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When is Makara Sankranti in 2023?

Makara Sankranti is celebrated on that day when the Sun is first visible in Makara Rāṡi (Capricorn). If the tranist happens during night time (i.e. after sunset) then the celebration is postponed until the next day’s sunrise. Contrary to what many people think, this time is not fixed in the sidereal calendar. Its value varies on the ayanamsha.

Following the most popular ayanamsa, the “True Lahiri” Citrapakṣa, the transit happens at 14-Jan-2023, 20:57 (IST) at Ujjain, India. Since it occurs after sunset, the celebration is postponed to 15-Jan-2023.

The following table lists the various ayanāṃṡas and the Makara Saṅkrānti moment (transit time):

Ayanāṃṡas and their effect on Makara Saṅkrānti
 Ayanamsa                      Transit time             Festival 
 Sri Surya Siddhanta (SSS)     15-Jan-2023 02:28        15 Jan   
 True Citra/Lahiri             14-Jan-2023 20:15        15 Jan   
 Traditional Lahiri            14-Jan-2023 20:38        15 Jan   
 Pushya-paksha                 13-Jan-2023 17:53        14 Jan   
 Raman                         13-Jan-2023 10:33        13 Jan   
 Krishnamoorthy (KP)           14-Jan-2023 18:21        15 Jan   
 Rohini-paksha                 14-Jan-2023 03:20        14 Jan   
 Usha Shashi (Revati-paksha)   11-Jan-2023 03:06        11 Jan   
 Yukteshwar                    13-Jan-2023 12:09        13 Jan   
 J.N.Bhasin                    13-Jan-2023 18:49        14 Jan   
 True Mula/Chandra Hari        15-Jan-2023 13:48        15 Jan   
 Aldebaran/Rohini at 15°Tau    15-Jan-2023 17:53        16 Jan   
 Galactic Centre at 0°Sag      17-Jan-2023 19:13        18 Jan   

I personally like ayanamshas based on the Mūlā nakṣatra (such as “True Mula/Chandra Hari” (λ Scorpionis is assumed at 0°Sag) or “Dhruva/Galacitc center at mid-Mula (Wilhem/Usha-Shashi)” or “Galactic Equator at mid-Mula” etc.).

Drik Panchange suggests that 5 Ghatis duration (1 ghati = 24 min) after Sunrise (if Sankranti happens after Sunset on previous day) and 1 Ghati duration after Sankranti moment (if Sankranti happens in day time) are highly auspicious.

This Python code can be used to calculate the exact transit date and time (in UTC, add +5.5 for IST) for various ayanamshas. Sample output is here. Note that most of the dates lie between January 10 and January 20 with some outliers.